Lancia Auto SA Technical questions, workshop ,software
engine, Classic Car
Before you decide to resort to such drastic measures, you should rather get in touch with us..or alternatively read: otherwise you might end up like:
Is crack detecting..
Well in Aviation it is better known as Non-destructive Testing. Which simply
means to look for a defect without breaking the part. We use the latest
Technology to find hairline cracks invisible to the naked eye.
Although its not as much fun as Destructive testing it certainly is more
Or is it ?
Non-destructive testing is slowly working its way into the Automotive
Industry and already top Formula one teams are utilizing this new field
to their advantage, with people like Williams Honda, McLaren, Ferrari and
even some South African Motor sport teams employing a permanent facility. Very clever if you consider that the first form of Crack testing was
performed when woodworms was the major hazard to Aircraft. Engine
components was first soaked for hours in hot Paraffin then dried off and
dusted with a white chalk powder. A wet stain then indicated the crack.
These days a Fluorescent Penetrant is used and cracks as small as 0.1mm have
been found on Turbo impellers. Yes they do crack !Recently a horrifying experience permanently shelved a good friends Classic
car restoration project after he bought a set of very expensive, secondhand,
imported con-rods because that was all he could find. It turned out that
one of those con-rods had a defect in it and snapped at 7000 rpm. only one
month later. Although this wasnt a Lancia all this damage couldve been
avoided if he had those con-rods tested for cracks before fitment. At least
his Bank manager gave him a Kleenex on the way out.Another method of finding defects open or close to the surface is to
magnetize the part. This we do with a magnetizing Bench using either a
central conductor or a coil. Youd be surprised at what is revealed when
you apply iron filings to the surface. Like one of our colleges recently
found out when he asked us to test his BMW Motorbikes replacement front
He is still shaking.
We can also test your wedged and balanced crank as well as those imported
cams you love so much.We all know what Ultrasonic Inspection is, from watching the Train driver
with his small long stem hammer tapping against the wheels of the train. If
it goes cling it is OK. And if it goes clunk its cracked. Modern day
equipment uses the same principle, by sending high frequency sound waves
into an item and then listening to the echo. Its an excellent method for
finding internal defects in forgings like side-shafts.
X-Rays are certainly more dangerous than the Train drivers hammer, but
just as reliable. Because now, you have a 3-D picture of your part with the
defect clearly visible. Expensive yes, but very effective for looking at the
quality of welding on a cylinder head repair and just how close you came to
that water jacket while porting.
A few weeks ago we found a crack on a cylinder head between the inlet tract
and a water jacket because of excessive porting. Unfortunately this guy
already had the head skimmed twice and replaced a few gaskets before he
decided to have the head checked for cracks. You cant save them all
Eddy Current Inspection uses the change in a materials Conductivity
characteristics to find cracks. Its great for testing weld-repairs to your
expensive mag-wheels. Non-destructive testing used to be available only to
the super rich Works teams and the Aviation industry. It is now affordable
to the classic car Enthusiast as well as the Performance junkie. Now you
can assemble your cars engine with confidence to prevent premature failure
Lancia, you either hate it, or you love it with a passion. If you find
yourself in the latter category like most of us you can rest assured that
there is no proven Medication for our condition. You just have to make the
best of it and always treat your Lancia to the highest quality parts, if you
should have any doubt about a part give me a call and have it
non-destructively tested. Your car deserves it.
I recently heard a very good saying and would like to share it with you.
It is sad that the people who really know how to run the world spend all
their time working on old cars.
Some interesting thoughts about Injection methods
Sequential or Bank???Most everyone will say (mee too) that sequential is better. Not much tho. When
you really break it down, it really is not as big of a benefit for best power.
Look at an intake valve is opening and closing 25/second at 3,000 rpm. At 6,000
= 50/sec and so on..
Lets start with 3,000 rpm. You have a total available time for an injector
open/close event of 40 msec. If the injector duration is 15msec, that leaves 25
msec of closed or off time. At 6,000 rpm the total event is now 20 msec you
still need the 15 msec duration, the off time is only 5 msec which is not enough
to really allow for opening and closing of the injector. You can go to a higher
lb/hr injector to reduce the duty cycle and many do this.
Many of the first sequentials were double shots where there are 2 injection
events for each valve opening. Some say that this is to cool the back of the
intake valve???? At 3,000 rpm this "cooling" must take place in the half-event
time of 20 msec. Huh??? You are really down to splitting hairz. There is in
fact a benefit to sequential but many many very high performance engines do
extremely well on bank or gang-bang injections. A dyno test I saw showed that
the method of injection made little difference. The biggest factor to stay
away from was having the injector open when the intake was open. Otherwise, not
much difference. Most OEM's are sequential for a coupe of reasons: OBD2
requirements and also there is a difference on low speed and idle operations
that mostly benefits emissions.
When you think about it, OEM's typically only do something for two reasons,
they have to because of regulations or the cost/benefit is in their favor. The
costs for sequential are minimal - a few extra drivers inside of the ECM and
just some software (the software engineers don't like it when you say it that
way). Even with minimal costs, the only real benefit to the OEM's was
emissions. If there were a true performance gain that in itself would raise
MPG. The OEM's all spend millions on trying to better their CAFE (Corp. Average
Fuel Economy). If this really helped performance and efficiency, they would
have gone sequential much sooner.