Open Circuit Cooling Towers | Baltimore Aircoil Company

By: Baltimore Aircoil  11-11-2011
Keywords: Technical Support, Energy Efficiency, Heat Transfer

Overview

Open cooling towers are a proven and cost-effective method of cooling condenser water loops and industrial processes. In operation, the condenser water (or process water) flows directly over the heat transfer surface of the open cooling tower. As air is introduced into the tower, a fraction of this water is evaporated, cooling the remaining water. Open cooling towers provide evaporative cooling for many types of systems, and the specific application will largely determine which BAC cooling tower is best suited for a project.

Choosing the best open circuit cooling tower

There is a wide variety of cooling tower concepts available on the market. It is for this reason that we recommend that you evaluate the different cooling tower configurations for your project. In order to select the best cooling tower for a specific application a number of factors should be considered. Listed below are a few questions which should be answered when making your choice.

About the application

  • What are the design conditions (flow rate, water in and out and entering wet bulb temperatures), which achieve the best energy efficiency for my process?
  • Are there acoustical limitations (sound power, sound pressure, day, night)?
  • What is the space available for the tower?
  • How can maintenance be conducted?
  • What is the condition of the make-up water?

About the supplier

  • What is the level of the manufacturer’s service and support?
  • Can the manufacturer demonstrate compliance with regulations and directives?
  • Who is my contact person for technical support and commercial assistance?

Compare the BAC Open Circuit Cooling Towers

Addition of product accessories can improve standard product features, e.g. sound attenuation, premium efficiency motors, maintenance, and corrosion protection. Contact you BAC representative for more information.

Configurations

There are two main configurations of factory assembled open cooling towers: crossflow and counterflow. In crossflow cooling towers, the water flows vertically down the wet deck as the air flows horizontally across it. In counterflow cooling towers, the water flows vertically down the wet deck as the air flows vertically up it.

Crossflow Configuration

Counterflow Configuration

Water Distribution System

Gravity Distribution Basin

Cooling towers employ either gravity distribution or pressurized spray systems to distribute water over the fill. Gravity systems, employed on BAC’s crossflow cooling towers, feature hot water basins mounted on top of the tower above the fill. A series of spray nozzles in each hot water basin distribute the water evenly over the fill. Gravity distribution systems generally require minimal pump head, can be inspected while the unit is in operation and are easy to access for routine maintenance and service.

Spray distribution systems, employed on counterflow cooling towers, feature a series of PVC branches or pipes fitted with spray nozzles mounted inside the tower above the fill. These systems require water pressure at the water inlet and require the unit to be out of service for inspection and maintenance.

Spray Distribution

Fan System

The flow of air through most factory assembled cooling towers is provided by one or more mechanically driven fans. The fan(s) may be axial or centrifugal, each type having its own distinct advantages. Axial fan units require approximately half the fan motor horsepower of comparably sized centrifugal fan units, offering significant energy savings.

Centrifugal fans

Axial fans

Centrifugal fan units are capable of overcoming reasonable amounts of external static pressure, making them suitable for both indoor and outdoor installations. Centrifugal fans are also inherently quieter than axial fans, although the difference is minimal and can often be overcome through the application of optional low sound fans and/or sound attenuation on axial fan units.

Induced Draft

The axial fans of induced draft equipment are mounted in the top deck of the unit, minimizing the impact of fan noise on nearby neighbors and providing maximum protection from fan icing with units operating in sub-freezing conditions. The use of corrosion resistant materials ensures long life and minimizes maintenance requirements for the air handling components.

Forced Draft

The fans are located on the air inlet face at the base of forced draft towers, facilitating easy access for routine maintenance and service. Additionally, the location of these components in the dry entering air stream extends component life by isolating them from the saturated discharge air.

Open Circuit Cooling Towers with centrifugal fans, deliver fully rated thermal performance over a wide range of flow and temperature requirements. The VXT type of cooling towers can be installed indoors and can accommodate limited ceiling or enclosure heights. Cooling tower with centrifugal fans minimise sound levels and installation costs, provides year round operating reliability, and simplifies maintenance requirements. Cooling Towers provide an answer to the growing need to save water and energy and help protect the environment by providing the highest system efficiency.  

Open Circuit Cooling Towers with centrifugal fans, deliver fully rated thermal performance over a wide range of flow and temperature requirements. The VTL type of cooling towers can be installed indoors and can accommodate limited ceiling or enclosure heights. Cooling tower with centrifugal fans minimise sound levels and installation costs, provides year round operating reliability, and simplifies maintenance requirements. Cooling Towers provide an answer to the growing need to save water and energy and help protect the environment by providing the highest system efficiency.

Keywords: centrifugal fans, Circuit Cooling, Condenser Water, Cooling Tower, Cooling Towers, Energy Efficiency, Evaporative Cooling, Heat Transfer, Open Cooling Towers, Technical Support, Water Loops,

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